Some info about the different fleeces I use

We have our own supply of fleeces from our little flock of Ryelands but sadly their fleeces are not ideal for wet felting.   For this reason I buy in a variety of different fleeces from nearby farms.  I thought it might be helpful to list some info about these different wools, their attributes, what makes them special, how easy they are to felt and where I get them from.  Scroll right down to the bottom for info on the farms.

Before I describe the fleeces from neighbouring farms, I’ll start off with some information about our own wool, from our cheeky flock of Coloured Ryelands:

Yogi, Ymo & Yarr, some of our flock of Coloured Ryelands

Coloured Ryeland 

Both Ryelands and Coloured Ryelands are a well established breed with records dating back more than six centuries.  Ryeland sheep were bred by monks in the rye-growing areas of South Herefordshire hence their name.  Ryeland wool has always been of very high quality and it is reputed that Queen Victoria would only have Ryeland wool stockings, no other wool would do apparently.

Resembling teddy bears, maybe because, unlike most sheep, they have woolly faces, they look and are, extremely cute and friendly.

While Ryelands are white, Coloured Ryelands are lots of different colours ranging from black, brown, beige, grey, caramel, cream, through to silvery white and all sorts of mixtures in between.  As a general rule, Coloured Ryelands start out in life black and gradually fade to slivery white as they get older.  Some Coloured Ryelands start out in life brown and fade to caramel as is the case of our Yogi.  This is quite unusual though.

I love working with Ryeland wool because each fleece is a complete surprise.  Although Ryeland wool isn’t long and glamorous, it is incredibly soft and springy and of course it comes in beautiful colours.

Wet felting with Ryeland wool is a little bit fiddly because of the short locks and fineness of the wool.  It also doesn’t felt as quickly as some of the courser wools so I find it’s best for making smaller items like pram liners or cushions.  Some fleeces don’t felt at all, especially the very springy ones.

Coloured Ryeland sheep friendly sheepskin rug – Pinky

Colour:  black, brown, beige, grey, caramel, cream, through to silvery white and all sorts of mixtures in between

Staple length:  5 – 8cm

Micron count:  30 – 32

Characteristics:  fine, springy, dense,

Feel:  soft




Fleeces from neighbouring farms

Herdwick x Texel

Christine's Herdwick x Texel sheep with lambs
Christine’s Herdwick x Texel sheep with lambs

As the name suggests, the Herdwick x Texel is the result of crossing a Herdwick with a Texel.  The result of this mix is a very cute sheep with beautifully lustrous, thick, springy wool with a well defined crimp which gives it a look of a cuddly toy made out of “pompoms”.  This “hairstyle” is due to the lofty quality of the wool which has a tendency to stand up rather than to lie flat.

The Herdwick is mostly grey while the Texel is usually creamy-white.  The Herdwick x Texel inherits the creamy fleece from the Texel although sometimes there is a hint of grey on the underside.

The Herdwick and the Texel are both breeds who are well adapted to living in cooler climates.  The Texel (as the name suggests) comes from the island of Texel which is off the north coast of Holland.   The Herdwick comes from the Lake District in the North West of England.  While the Herdwick has a coarsely textured, double coated fleece (long outer coat to repel water and downy undercoat for warmth), the Texel has finer wool, but being tightly stapled (dense) with a well defined crimp, is just as warm and insulating.

The result of this cross, is a sheep with a not only a very eye catching fleece, but one which is warm, weighty and silky soft.

This wool felts well and makes lovely rugs with plenty of squishiness.


Herdwick x Texel sheep friendly sheepskin rug

Colour:  creamy-white, sometimes with a touch of grey or fawn

Staple length:  varies from fleece to fleece, between 7 and 14cm

Micron count:  31 – 34.5

Characteristics:  well defined crimp, lofty, lustrous, thick, springy

Feel:  soft




Cheviot (North Country Cheviot & Cheviot)

Cheviot hogg being sheared at Craiglearan

The North Country Cheviot (which is found in Scotland), as opposed to “the Cheviot” (from the north of England and Scottish Borders), differs from its southern counterpart in that it is a larger sheep and has slightly less perky ears.  Whether the Scottish variety or the English, the Cheviot is a hardy, easy going sheep and happy to roam the uplands and hills where other sheep might complain, the Cheviot is content and can live off the hill throughout the year.

The wool of Cheviot fleeces is dense and tightly packed.  Being a large sheep with a lot of wool, whenever I make a rug from a Cheviot fleece it is generally going to end up a “biggie”.

Cheviot wool is very springy (rather like the Herdwick x Texel) above.  The tightly packed, “puffed up” staples makes the wool push outwards rather than lie flat giving the sheep the appearance of being surrounded by a beautiful woolly halo.  To get a bit technical, one of the reasons for the springiness of the wool is thanks to a rather special crimp within the wool fibres; a “helical crimp”, (spiral shaped), as opposed to a standard crimp which is more of a zig zag shape.  This helical crimp doesn’t just serve to add spring and bounce to Cheviot wool though, it also makes it strong, resilient and flexible.

Beautiful as Cheviot wool is, wet felting it is very tricky.  In a nutshell, it doesn’t take readily to being felted and is tons more work.  While it is possible to felt a Cheviot fleece, I wouldn’t recommend it unless you have plenty of time and are interested in building big arm muscles.  This said, the rugs I have managed to make using Cheviot wool have turned out to be among my favourites.  Possibly because I was so relieved to have finally felted it!


Cheviot sheep friendly sheepskin rug

Colour:  ivory-white

Staple length:  8 – 12cm

Micron count:  30.5 – 33

Characteristics:  springy, tightly packed, “puffed up”

Feel:  soft




Border Leicester

The Border Leicester (along with the Bluefaced Leicester) are both descendants of the “Dishley Leicester”, a sheep developed during the 18th century by the agriculturalist, Robert Bakewell of Dishley in Leicestershire.  Bakewell is best known for his work in sheep and cattle breeding using methodical selection as opposed to random breeding.  His work revolutionised the way livestock was bred and many of his methods are still with us today.

While the Border Leicester is a little hardier than the Bluefaced Leicester, both breeds have lovely wool.  Their fleeces are highly desirable and their wool is commonly used for hosiery, dress fabrics and hand knitting.

Almost pure white in colour, their wool is long and lustrous and falls in well defined locks with the tips ending in a small curl.

I love working with Border Leicester fleeces, I love the silky feel of the wool and the way the locks fall into long, loose ringlets.  If I could go back in time I would like to meet Robert Bakewell and say thank you for producing a sheep with such a pretty fleece.

Border Leicester wool felts easily and is a joy to work with.

Border Leicester sheep friendly sheepskin rug

Colour:  white

Staple length:  10 – 15cm

Micron count:  32.5 – 35

Characteristics:  well defined locks ending in a small curl

Feel:  soft, silky





There are several types of Mule sheep and I love them all, obviously because they have beautiful fleeces but also because they’re just great sheep.  They are much loved in all parts of the UK and  I’m fortunate to have three different types of Mule fleeces from neighbouring farms.  I have fleeces from Scotch Mules, Swaledale Mules and North Country Cheviot Mules.

Simply put, a Mule is a cross between a “hill” or a “mountain” ewe and a Bluefaced Leciester (lowland) ram.  The breed of ewe can vary; she could be a Scottish Blackface (Mountain), a Cheviot (Hill), or a Swaledale (Mountain) for example, but she will always be a hill or a mountain breed.  The ram will always be a Bluefaced Leicester.  Combining a hardy, thrifty mother with a lowland father brings about the best of both breeds.  Mules inherit the excellent mothering skills and hardiness from the ewe, along with the capability of producing multiple lambs and plenty of milk from the lowland ram.

My “go to” fleece for rug making is always a Scotch Mule.  These fleeces make beautiful, glamorous rugs and the wool felts nice and easily.

Scotch Mule 

Scotch Mule sheep friendly sheepskin rug

Colour:  ivory-white

Staple length:  10 – 22cm

Micron count:  30.5 – 33

Characteristics:  well defined crimp, long, silky, ultra fine, tipped with a small curl

Feel:  soft, silky



Swaledale Mule

Swaledale Mule sheep-friendly sheepskin rug

Colour:  rich cream

Staple length:  10 – 22cm

Micron count:  30 – 32.5

Characteristics:  well defined crimp, very long, slightly “puffed up” tipped with a small curl

Feel:  soft, slightly “fuzzy”




North Country Cheviot Mule

Colour:  ivory-white

Staple length:  12- 16cm

Micron count:  30.5 – 33

Characteristics:  springy, long, slightly “puffed up”

Feel:  soft, slightly “fuzzy”



The farms 

Christine & Russell’s smallholding in Crocketford, Dumfries

Christine & Russell McGahan are a hardworking young couple who have day jobs, but also run a sizeable smallholding in Dumfries where they keep sheep, horses and dogs.  Christine also “farm sits” which is how we got to know this lovely couple.

Fleeces:  Herdwick x Texel, North Country Cheviot, Border Leicester, Swaledale Mules (hogs and ewes)

Marwhirn Farm, Moniaive

I happily got to know Robert & Alison Wilson by helping Alison out with her garden.  I soon spied their beautiful sheep and it wasn’t long before I was lucky enough to acquire some of their fleeces.

Fleeces:  Scottish Blackface Mule hog, North Country Cheviot Mule hog

Craiglearan Farm, Moniave

We live right next door to the lovely family at Craiglearan Farm.  When it comes round to shearing time, I go round and hand select the fleeces I think would turn into lovely rugs.

Fleeces:  Cheviot hogs

Andy McQuaker, Corsock

We were fortunate to get to know Andy when he came to help us with some fencing work.  You couldn’t meet a more hardworking man than Andy.  He has incredible energy, managing his own farm as well as doing heavy duty contract work around the area.  He also shears his own sheep, which if you’ve ever sheared a sheep yourself, you will know is no mean feat.  Hats off to Andy!

Fleeces:  Scottish Blackface Mule hogs